The EM-DAT Glossary
- Affectedsearch for term
People requiring immediate assistance during a period of emergency, i.e. requiring basic survival needs such as food, water, shelter, sanitation and immediate medical assistance.
- Airburstsearch for term
An explosion of a comet or meteoroid within the Earth’s atmosphere without striking the ground.
- Animal accidentsearch for term
Human encounters with dangerous or exotic animals in both urban and rural developments.
- Ash Fallsearch for term
Fine (less than 4 mm in diameter) unconsolidated volcanic debris blown into the atmosphere during an eruption; can remain airborne for long periods of time and travel considerable distance from the source.
- Avalanchesearch for term
A large mass of loosened earth material, snow, or ice that slides, flows or falls rapidly down a mountainside under the force of gravity.
- Snow Avalanche: Rapid downslope movement of a mix of snow and ice.
- Debris Avalanche: The sudden and very rapid downslope movement of unsorted mass of rock and soil. There are two general types of debris avalanches - a cold debris avalanche usually results from an unstable slope suddenly collapsing whereas a hot debris avalanche results from volcanic activity leading to slope instability and collapse.
- Bacterial diseasesearch for term
An unusual increase in the number of incidents caused by the exposure to bacteria either through skin contact, ingestion or inhalation. Examples include salmonella, MSRA, and cholera, among others.
- Biological hazardsearch for term
A hazard caused by the exposure to living organisms and their toxic substances (e.g. venom, mold) or vector-borne diseases that they may carry. Examples are venomous wildlife and insects, poisonous plants, and mosquitoes carrying disease-causing agents such as parasites, bacteria, or viruses (e.g. malaria).c
- Chemical spillsearch for term
Accident release occurring during the production, transportation or handling of hazardous chemical substances.
- Climatological hazardsearch for term
A hazard caused by long-lived, meso- to macro-scale atmospheric processes ranging from intra-seasonal to multi-decadal climate variability.
- Coastal erosionsearch for term
The temporary or permanent loss of sediments or landmass in coastal margins due to the action of waves, winds, tides, or anthropogenic activities.
- Coastal floodsearch for term
Higher-than-normal water levels along the coast caused by tidal changes or thunderstorms that result in ﬂooding, which can last from days to weeks.
- Cold wavesearch for term
A period of abnormally cold weather. Typically a cold wave lasts two or more days and may be aggravated by high winds. The exact temperature criteria for what constitutes a cold wave vary by location.
- Collapsesearch for term
Accident involving the collapse of building or structure. Can either involve industrial structures or domestic / non-industrial structures.
- Complex disasterssearch for term
Major famine situation for which the drought was not the main causal factor.
- Convective stormsearch for term
A type of meteorological hazard generated by the heating of air and the availability of moist and unstable air masses. Convective storms range from localised thunderstorms (with heavy rain and/or hail, lightning, high winds, tornadoes) to meso-scale, multi-day events.
- Country-level disastersearch for term
A disaster that has affected a particular country. A disaster event [see « Disaster event»] that affects several countries will have a number of country-level disaster entries equal to the number of countries that have been affected. Each of these country-level disasters will have the same DISNO identifier. In the case of multi-country disasters, the EM-DAT inclusion criteria apply to the disaster event, and not to the country-level disaster.
- Crop failuresearch for term
Abnormal reductions in crop yield such that is insufficient to meet the nutritional or economic needs of the communityd
- Deathsearch for term
Number of people who lost their life because the event happened.
- Derechosearch for term
Widespread and usually fast-moving windstorms associated with convection/convective storm. Derechos include downburst and straight-line winds. The damage from derechos is often confused with the damage from tornadoes.
- Disastersearch for term
Situation or event, which overwhelms local capacity, necessitating a request to national or international level for external assistance (definition considered in EM-DAT); An unforeseen and often sudden event that causes great damage, destruction and human suffering. Though often caused by nature, disasters can have human origins.
- Disaster Eventsearch for term
A disaster meeting the EM-DAT criteria and which is recorded in EM-DAT. A disaster event can affect one country or several [see «Country-level disaster»]. In the case of the latter, the disaster event will result in several country-level disasters being entered into the database. A disaster event will always have a unique DISNO identifier.
- Diseasesearch for term
Either an unusual, often sudden, increase in the number of incidents of an infectious disease that already existed in the region (e.g., ﬂu, E. coli) or the appearance of an infectious disease previously absent from the region (e.g., plague, polio).
- Droughtsearch for term
An extended period of unusually low precipitation that produces a shortage of water for people, animals and plants. Drought is diﬀerent from most other hazards in that it develops slowly, sometimes even over years, and its onset is generally diﬃcult to detect. Drought is not solely a physical phenomenon because its impacts can be exacerbated by human activities and water supply demands. Drought is therefore often deﬁned both conceptually and operationally. Operational deﬁnitions of drought, meaning the degree of precipitation reduction that constitutes a drought, vary by locality, climate and environmental sector.e
- Earthquakesearch for term
Sudden movement of a block of the Earth’s crust along a geological fault and associated ground shaking.
- El Niñosearch for term
(« little child » in Spanish): Anormalous warming of ocean water resulting from the oscillation of current in the South Pacific, usually accompanied by heavy rainfall in the coastal region of Peru and Chile, and reduction of rainfall in equatorial Africa and Australia.
- Energetic particlessearch for term
Emissions from solar radiation storms consisting of pieces of matter (e.g., protons and other charged particles) moving at very high speed. The magnetosphere and atmosphere block (solar) energetic particles (SEP) from reaching humans on Earth but they are damaging to the electronics of space-borne technology (such as satellites) and pose a radiation hazard to life in space and aircrafts travelling at high altitudes.
- Epicentresearch for term
Point on the earth’s surface directly above the place of origin (i.e. focus, or hypocenter) of an earthquake.
- Epidemicsearch for term
Either an unusual increase in the number of cases of an infectious disease, which already exists in the region or population concerned; or the appearance of an infection previously absent from a region.
- Estimated Damagesearch for term
The amount of damage to property, crops, and livestock. In EM-DAT estimated damage are given in US$ (‘000). For each disaster, the registered figure corresponds to the damage value at the moment of the event, i.e. the figures are shown true to the year of the event.
- Expansive soilsearch for term
Earthen material, particularly clays that, upon wetting, freezing, or drying will alternately expand or contract causing damage to foundations of buildings and other structures. Shrinkage is generally referred to as desiccation.
- Explosionssearch for term
Explosions involving buildings or structures. Can either involve industrial structures.
- Extra-tropical stormsearch for term
A type of low-pressure cyclonic system in the middle and high latitudes (also called mid-latitude cyclone) that primarily gets its energy from the horizontal temperature contrasts (fronts) in the atmosphere. When associated with cold fronts, extratropical cyclones may be particularly damaging (e.g. European winter/windstorm, Nor’easter).
- Extraterrestrial hazardsearch for term
A hazard caused by asteroids, meteoroids, and comets as they pass near-earth, enter the Earth’s atmosphere, and/or strike the Earth, and by changes in interplanetary conditions that eﬀect the Earth’s magnetosphere, ionosphere, and thermosphere.
- Extreme winter conditionssearch for term
Damage caused by snow and ice. Winter damage refers to damage to buildings, infrastructure, traffic (esp. navigation) inflicted by snow and ice in form of snow pressure, freezing rain, frozen waterways etc.f
- Faminesearch for term
Catastrophic food shortage affecting large numbers of people due to climatic, environmental and socio-economic reasons.
- Flash floodsearch for term
Rapid inland floods due to intense rainfall A flash flood describes sudden flooding with short duration. In sloped terrain the water flows rapidly with a high destruction potential. In flat terrain the rainwater cannot infiltrate into the ground or run off (due to small slope) as quickly as it falls. Flash floods typically are associated with thunderstorms. A flash flood can occur at virtually any place.
- Floodsearch for term
A general term for the overﬂow of water from a stream channel onto normally dry land in the ﬂoodplain (riverine ﬂooding), higher-than- normal levels along the coast and in lakes or reservoirs (coastal ﬂooding) as well as ponding of water at or near the point where the rain fell (ﬂash ﬂoods).
- Fogsearch for term
Water droplets that are suspended in the air near the Earth’s surface. Fog is simply a cloud that is in contact with the ground.
- Food shortagesearch for term
Lack of alimentation bases.
- Forest firesearch for term
A type of wildﬁre in a wooded area.
- Freezesearch for term
Freeze occurs when the air temperature is at (32˚F/0˚C) or below over a widespread area for a climatologically signiﬁcant period of time. Use of the term is usually restricted to advective situations or to occasions when wind or other conditions prevent frost. Frost and freeze are particularly damaging during the crop growing season.
- Frostsearch for term
Frost is the consequence of radiative cooling resulting in the formation of thin ice crystals on the ground or other surfaces in the form of needles, feathers, scales, or fans. Frost occurs when the temperature of surfaces is below freezing and water vapor from humid air forms solid deposits on the cold surface.
- Fungal diseasesearch for term
Exposure to fungi either through skin contact, ingestion or inhalation of spores resulting in an unusual increase in the number of incidents. Examples are fungal pneumonia, fungal meningitis, etc.g
- Geomagnetic stormsearch for term
A type of extraterrestrial hazard caused by solar wind shockwaves that temporarily disturb the Earth’s magnetosphere. Geomagnetic storms can disrupt power grids, spacecraft operations, and satellite communications.
- Geophysical disasterssearch for term
Events originating from solid earth.
- Geophysical hazardsearch for term
A hazard originating from solid earth. This term is used interchangeably with the term geological hazard.
- Glacial lake outburstsearch for term
A ﬂood that occurs when water dammed by a glacier or moraine is suddenly released. Glacial lakes can be at the front of the glacier (marginal lake) or below the ice sheet (sub-glacial lake).
- Ground shakingsearch for term
Surface displacement of earthen materials due to ground shaking triggered by earthquakes or volcanic eruptions.h
- Hail stormsearch for term
Storm with hailstones as dominant type of precipitation. A hail storm is a type of storm that is characterised by hail as the dominant part of its precipitation. The size of the hailstones can vary between pea size (6mm) and softball size (112mm) and therefore cause considerable damage.
- Hazardsearch for term
Threatening event, or probability of occurrence of a potentially damaging phenomenon within a given time period and area.
- Heat wavesearch for term
A period of abnormally hot and/or unusually humid weather. Typically a heat wave lasts two or more days. The exact temperature criteria for what constitutes a heat wave vary by location.
- Homelesssearch for term
Number of people whose house is destroyed or heavily damaged and therefore need shelter after an event.
- Hurricanesearch for term
Large-scale closed circulation system in the atmosphere above the western Atlantic with low barometric pressure and strong winds that rotate clockwise in the southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Maximum wind speed of 64 knots or more [See « cyclone » for the Indian Ocean and South Pacific and eastern Pacific and « typhoon » for the western Pacific].
- Hydrological hazardsearch for term
A hazard caused by the occurrence, movement, and distribution of surface and subsurface freshwater and saltwater.i
- Ice jam floodsearch for term
The accumulation of ﬂoating ice restricting or blocking a river’s ﬂow and drainage. Ice jams tend to develop near river bends and obstructions (e.g. bridges).
- Impactsearch for term
A type of extraterrestrial hazard caused by the collision of the Earth with a meteoroid, asteroid or comet.
- Industrial accidentsearch for term
Disaster type term used in EM-DAT to describe technological accidents of an industrial nature/involving industrial buildings (e.g. factories).
- Injuredsearch for term
People suffering from physical injuries, trauma or an illness requiring immediate medical assistance as a direct result of a disaster.
- Insect infestationsearch for term
Pervasive influx and development of insects or parasites affecting humans, animals, crops and materials.
- Insured lossessearch for term
Insured losses are those which are covered by the insurance sector and paid directly to the owner of the damaged or destroyed property or crops and livestock or the primary insurance company (in case of reinsurance).l
- Laharsearch for term
Hot or cold mixture of earthen material ﬂowing on the slope of a volcano either during or between volcanic eruptions
- Landslidesearch for term
Any kind of moderate to rapid soil movement incl. lahar, mudslide, debris flow. A landslide is the movement of soil or rock controlled by gravity and the speed of the movement usually ranges between slow and rapid, but not very slow. It can be superficial or deep, but the materials have to make up a mass that is a portion of the slope or the slope itself. The movement has to be downward and outward with a free face.
- Lava flowsearch for term
The ejected magma that moves as a liquid mass downslope from a volcano during an eruption.
- Lighteningsearch for term
Hazards/losses caused by lightning stroke. Lightning is an atmospheric discharge of electricity, which typically occurs during thunderstorms, and sometimes during volcanic eruptions or dust storms.
- Liquefactionsearch for term
The transformation of (partially) water-saturated soil from a solid state to a liquid state caused by an earthquake. Liquefaction reduces the strength and stiﬀness of soil causing buildings to topple over.m
- Mass movementsearch for term
Any type of downslope movement of earth materials.
- Meteorological disasterssearch for term
Events caused by short-lived/small to mesoscale atmospheric processes (in the spectrum from minutes to days).
- Miscellaneous accidentsearch for term
Disaster type term used in EM-DAT to describe technological accidents of a non-industrial or transport nature (e.g. houses).
- Missingsearch for term
The number of people whose whereabouts since the disaster is unknown, and who are presumed dead (official figure when available).o
- Orographic stormsearch for term
Local windstorm refers to strong winds caused by regional atmospheric phenomena which are typical for a certain area. These can be katabatic winds, foehn winds, Mistral, Bora etc.p
- Parasitic diseasesearch for term
Exposure to a parasite–an organism living on or in a host–causes an unusual increase in the number of incidents. Exposure to parasites occurs mostly through contaminated water, food or contact with insects, animals (zoonotic), pets, etc. Examples are malaria, chagas disease, giardiasis and trichinellosis.
- Poisoningsearch for term
Poisoning of atmosphere or water courses due to industrial sources.
- Prion diseasesearch for term
A type of biological hazard caused by prion proteins. Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that aﬀect both humans and animals characterised by long incubation periods and neural loss. Examples are Bovine Spongiform Encephalophathy (BSE), Creutzfeldt- Jakob-Disease (CJD), Kuru, etc.
- Pyroclastic flowsearch for term
Extremely hot gases, ash, and other materials of more than 1,000 degrees Celsius that rapidly ﬂow down the ﬂank of a volcano (more than 700 km/h) during an eruption.r
- Radio disturbancesearch for term
Triggered by x-ray emissions from the Sun hitting the Earth’s atmosphere and causing disturbances in the ionosphere such as jamming of high and/or low frequency radio signals. This aﬀects satellite radio communication and Global Positioning Systems (GPS).
- Rainsearch for term
Water vapour condenses in the atmosphere to form water droplets that fall to the Earth.
- Richter scalesearch for term
Devised by C.F. Richter in 1935, an index of the seismic energy released by an earthquake (as contrasted to intensity that describes its effects at a particular place) expressed in terms of the motion that would be measured by a specific type of seismograph located 100 km from the epicentre of an earthquake.
- Risksearch for term
Expected losses (of lives, persons injured, property damaged and economic activity disrupted) due to a particular hazard for a given area and reference period. Based on mathematical calculations, risk is the product of hazard and vulnerability.
- Rogue wavesearch for term
An unusual single crest of an ocean wave far out at sea that is much higher and/or steeper than other waves in the prevailing swell systems
- Sandstorm/Dust stormsearch for term
A sandstorm/dust storm typically occurs in arid or semi-arid regions if high wind speeds cause the transportation of small particles like sand or fine clastic sediment by saltation and/or suspension. e.g. in deserts.
- Scrub firesearch for term
Fires in scrub or bush that cover extensive damage. They may start by natural causes such as volcanic eruptions or lightning, or they may be caused by arsonists or careless smokers, by those burning wood, or by clearing a forest area.
- Seichesearch for term
A standing wave of water in a large semi- or fully-enclosed body of water (lakes or bays) created by strong winds and/or a large barometric pressure gradient.
- Shockwavesearch for term
A shockwave carries energy from a disturbance through a medium (solid, liquid, gas) similar to a wave though it travels at much higher speed. It can be a type of extraterrestrial hazard caused by the explosion (airburst) or impact of meteorites that generate energy shockwaves capable of shattering glass, collapsing walls, etc.
- Sinkholesearch for term
Collapse of the land surface due to the dissolving of the subsurface rocks such as limestone or carbonate rock by water.
- Storm surgesearch for term
An abnormal rise in sea level generated by a tropical cyclone or other intense storms.
- Subsidencesearch for term
Subsidence refers to the sinking of the ground due to groundwater removal, mining, dissolution of limestone (e.g. karst, sinkholes), extraction of natural gas, and earthquakes.t
- Tornadosearch for term
A violently rotating column of air that reaches the ground or open water (waterspout).
- Total affectedsearch for term
In EM-DAT, it is the sum of the injured, affected and left homeless after a disaster.
- Total deathssearch for term
In EM-DAT, it is the sum of deaths and missing.
- Transport accidentsearch for term
Disaster type term used in EM-DAT to describe technological transport accidents involving mechanised modes of transport. It comprises of four disaster subsets: accidents involving aeroplanes, helicopters, airships and balloons « Transport:Air »; accidents involving sailing boats, ferries, cruise ships, other boats « Transport:Boat »; accidents involving trains « Transport:Rail »; and accidents involving motor vehicles on roads and tracks « Transport:Road ».
- Tropical stormsearch for term
A tropical storm originates over tropical or subtropical waters. It is characterised by a warm-core, non-frontal synoptic-scale cyclone with a low pressure centre, spiral rain bands and strong winds. Depending on their location, tropical cyclones are referred to as hurricanes (Atlantic, Northeast Paciﬁc), typhoons (Northwest Paciﬁc), or cyclones (South Paciﬁc and Indian Ocean).
- Tsunamisearch for term
« wave in the port » in Japanese: A series of waves (with long wavelengths when traveling across the deep ocean) that are generated by a displacement of massive amounts of water through underwater earthquakes, volcanic eruptions or landslides. Tsunami waves travel at very high speed across the ocean but as they begin to reach shallow water they slow down and the wave grows steeper.
- Typhoonsearch for term
Large-scale closed circulation system in the atmosphere above the western Pacific with low barometric pressure and strong winds that rotate clockwise in ther southern hemisphere and counter-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. Maximum wind speed of 64 knots or more [See « hurricane » for the western Atlantic and eastern Pacific and « cyclone » for the Indian Ocean and South Pacific].u
- Urban firesearch for term
Urban fire involving buildings or structures. Can either involve industrial structures.v
- Volcanic activitysearch for term
A type of volcanic event near an opening/vent in the Earth’s surface including volcanic eruptions of lava, ash, hot vapour, gas, and pyroclastic material.
- Vulnerabilitysearch for term
Degree of loss (from 0% to 100%) resulting from a potential damaging phenomenon.w
- Wildfiresearch for term
Any uncontrolled and non-prescribed combustion or burning of plants in a natural setting such as a forest, grassland, brush land or tundra, which consumes the natural fuels and spreads based on environmental conditions (e.g., wind, topography). Wildﬁres can be triggered by lightning or human actions.
- Windsearch for term
Diﬀerences in air pressure resulting in the horizontal motion of air. The greater the diﬀerence in pressure, the stronger the wind. Wind moves from high pressure toward low pressure.
- Winter storm/Blizzardsearch for term
A low pressure system in winter months with signiﬁcant accumulations of snow, freezing rain, sleet or ice. A blizzard is a severe snow storm with winds exceeding 35 mph (56 km/h) for three or more hours, producing reduced visibility (less than 0.25 mile (400 m)).